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Activity 2.1.2 - Wheat Traits for Fieldbooks

Trait Definition Identifier
     
Agronomic trait Describes important agronomic characters in wheat. CO_321:0000001
1000-grain weight Measurement of 1000 well-developed grains in grams. CO_321 0000025
above ground biomass Measurement of total dried above ground biomass in g/plot or kg/ha or kg/plot or ton/ha. CO_321:0000005
days to flag leaf emergence Counted as days from sowing to the first leaf emergence. CO_321:0000030
days to flower Counted as days from sowing to 50% of the plants in flower. However, when planting in dry soils in dryland areas it is counted from the first day of rainfall or irrigation which is sufficient for germination. CO_321:0000121
days to heading Number of days required for the inflorescence (panicle) to emerge from the flag leaf of a plant or a group of plants in a study. CO_321:0000007
days to maturity Number of days from planting to harvest at maturity. CO_321:0000008
days to seedling emergence Counted as days from sowing to the seedling emergence. CO_321:0000021
early vigor Visual rating of vegetative growth using Zadok growth stages and determines whether it is early or late. CO_321:0000009
germination date (emergence date) Record of the day on which a seedling is first observed. CO_321:0000010
germination (emergence) percentage Percentage of grains that germinate under proper condition. CO_321:0000011
grain yield The product of accumulating dry matter (i.e., biomass) and allocating a portion of the total aboveground biomass to the grain. It is measured in g/plot. CO_321:0000013
ground cover Measurement of ground surface covered by the plant in percentage at 5 leaf stage. CO_321:0000014
growth habit A qualitative description of the growth habit of the plant whether erect/semi-erect/prostrate/spreading/semi-spreading. CO_321:0000015
growth stage Visual observation of growth stages based on Zadok Decimal code. CO_321:0000016
harvest index The ratio of grain weight to total plant weight. CO_321:0000123
initial germination value   CO_321:0000017
lodging incidence Indicates percentage of plants that lodged. CO_321:0000167
moisture percentage Total percentage of water in wheat. CO_321:0000019
plant height Height of plant at maturity, measured in cm from ground to top of spike, excluding awns. CO_321 0000020
relative heading Ratio of the heading days that determined from the plant to best local check which represents the best locally adopted germplasm at each location grown in standard or normal environment. CO_321:0000023
relative maturity Ratio of the maturity days that determined from the plant to best local check which represents the best locally adopted germplasm at each location grown in standard or normal environment. CO_321:0000022
relative plant height Ratio of the plant height determined from the plant to local check which represents the best locally adopted germplasm at each location grown in standard or normal environment. CO_321:0000024
spike per meter square Count numbers of spike per meter square area. CO_321:0000166
spike shattering Observation of grains dehiscence from spike at maturity. CO_321:0000057
sterile (sterility) index   CO_321:0000165
     
Morphological trait Describes important morphological characters of wheat. CO_321:0000002
awn length Measurement of awn length in cm (centimeter). CO_321:0000026
awnedness Observation of awn type whether awnless/awnletted (short awns)/awned (conspicious awns). CO_321:0000027
coleoptile length Length of coleoptile (a protective sheath that surrounds the shoot tip and the embryonic leaves of the young shoot of grasses) is measured in cm (centimeter). CO_321:0000029
glume color Color observation on the outer glume whether white/red to brown/purple to black at maturity. CO_321:0000031
glume length Length of glume measured in mm (millimeter). CO_321:0000032
glume pubescence density Measurement of glume hairiness density on outer side of sterile glume. CO_321:0000033
glume pubescence length Measurement of glume pubescence length on outer side of sterile glume. CO_321:0000034
glume waxiness Measurement of presence of wax in glume. CO_321:0000035
glume width Measurement of width of glume in mm (millimeter). CO_321:0000036
grain color Visual measurement of grain color whether white/red/purple at maturity. CO_321:0000037
grain per spike Count of total number of grains on an average of five spikes. CO_321:0000038
grain per spikelet The total numbers of grains per spikelet. CO_321:0000041
grain size Measurement of grain size in cm (centimeter). CO_321:0000040
leaf length Actual measurement of leaf length in cm (centimeter). CO_321:0000044
leaf pubescence density Measurement of leaf hairiness density. CO_321:0000045
leaf pubescence length Measurement of leaf pubescent length. CO_321:0000046
leaf thickness Measurement of leaf thickness in mm (millimeter). CO_321:0000047
leaf waxiness Visual observation of presence of wax in leaf. CO_321:0000048
leaf width Measurement of leaf width in mm (millimeter). CO_321:0000049
neck break Observation of spike break from the base of head. CO_321:0000050
node number Number of nodes on stem. CO_321:0000051
peduncle length Measurement of peduncle length in cm (centimeter). CO_321:0000052
peduncle pubescence density Measurement of peduncle hairiness density. CO_321:0000053
peduncle waxiness Visual observation of presence of wax in peduncle. CO_321:0000054
spike density A visual measure of density of a wheat spike. CO_321:0000055
spike length Measurement of spike length in cm (centimeter). CO_321:0000056
spikelet per spike Number of spikelets per spike based on the average of five spikes. CO_321:0000058
stay green The color of plant and the photosynthetic organs remain green compared to turning yellow and or brown at the time of senescing. CO_321:0000059
stem height Measurement of stem height in cm (centimeter). CO_321:0000060
stem solidness The trait evaluates the solidness of stem as either solid/intermediate or hollowness. CO_321:0000061
stem thickness Measurement of stem thickness in mm (millimeter). CO_321:0000062
     
Quality trait Describes important quality related traits of wheat which are evaluated for its suitability for a specific final product. For instance, soft wheat is judged by its suitability for the production of cakes, cookies, or crackers. CO_321:0000003
1BL/1RS translocation   CO_321:0000158
alveograph dough strength Determination of dough strength by alveograph. CO_321 0000144
alveograph tenacity to extensibility ratio Ratio of tenacity (p; maximum pressure required for the deformation of the sample) and extensibility (L; length of the curve) of dough. CO_321:0000145
bread loaf volume Measurement of baking quality of flour. CO_321:0000124
cookie spread factor The ratio between average height and width of 5 cookies. CO_321:0000064
crumb structure Measurement of the cellular structure of wheat bread crumb whether poor/fair/good/very good. CO_321:0000065
flour falling number The falling number is defined as the time in seconds required stirring and allowing stirrer to fall a measured distance through a hot aqueous flour or meal gel undergoing liquefaction due to a-Amylase activity. CO_321:0000066
flour protein content Total protein percent (corrected to 14.0% moisture basis) in refined flour. CO_321:0000067
flour SDS-sedimentation Testing of refined flour quality by SDS-sedimentation, a parameter estimating gluten strength or gluten protein quality. CO_321:0000146
flour yield Percentage of flour recovered during milling. CO_321:0000068
gluten content Percentage of wet gluten in flour. CO_321:0000069
gluten type Determination of gluten type whether weak-tenacious/tenacious/weak/medium strong/Strong/Overly strong. CO_321:0000070
grain falling number Indication of the amount of sprout damage that has occurred within a wheat sample. Falling number value of 350 seconds or longer indicates a low enzyme activity and very sound wheat quality. As the amount of enzyme activity increases, the falling number decreases. Values below 200 seconds indicate high levels of enzyme activity. CO_321:0000071
grain hardness Determination of grain quality whether very soft/medium soft/medium hard/ hard/very hard. CO_321:0000072
grain moisture content Moisture content of grain measured by grain moisture analyzer in percentage. CO_321:0000012
grain plumpness A qualitative trait measuring degree of endosperm has filled. CO_321:0000039
grain protein content It is determined in percentage of protein (corrected to 12.5% moisture basis) in the whole wheat grain samples. CO_321:0000073
kernel/grain texture Visual observation of the relative hardness of a kernel whether soft/intermediate/hard . CO_321:0000043
grain SDS-sedimentation Testing of grain (whole meal flour) quality by SDS sedimentation a parameter estimating gluten strength or gluten protein quality. CO_321:0000147
high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition (HMW-Glu) Determination of high molecular weight of glutenin subunit composition in endosperm. CO_321:0000150
HMW-Glu 1A Determination of high molecular weight of glutenin subunit 1A in endosperm. CO_321:0000152
HMW-Glu 1B Determination of high molecular weight of glutenin subunit 1B in endosperm. CO_321:0000153
HMW-Glu 1D Determination of high molecular weight of glutenin subunit 1D in endosperm. CO_321:0000154
low molecular weight glutenin subunit composition (LMW-Glu) Determination of low molecular weight of glutenin subunit composition in endosperm. CO_321:0000151
LMW-Glu 1A Determination of low molecular weight of glutenin subunit 1A in endosperm. CO_321:0000155
LMW-Glu 1B Determination of low molecular weight of glutenin subunit 1B in endosperm. CO_321:0000156
LMW-Glu 1D Determination of high molecular weight of glutenin subunit 1D in endosperm. CO_321:0000157
mixograph mixing time Time required for the dough development from beginning of mixing flour and water to the dough reaches maximum consistency. It is expressed in minutes. CO_321:0000149
sedimentation index SDS-sedimentation volume divided by protein percentage. CO_321:0000160
seed vitreousness One of the key quality parameters in the determination of Durum quality referring to translucent or glass-like appearance when seeds are transversely sectioned and observed whether not vitreous/partly vitreous/vitreous. It is associated with high protein and hard grain. CO_321:0000042
semolina protein content Protein content in durum wheat semolina. CO_321:0000074
semolina yellow color value Measurement of flour/semolina yellow color with the Minolta chromameter using the color scale b. CO_321:0000075
starchy endosperm area Characterized for having low endosperm protein concentration. CO_321:0000148
test weight Is the weight (Kg) per one hectoliter of clean grain. CO_321:0000159
yellow berry Refers to kernels showing chalky or starchy endosperm areas. CO_321:0000174
     
Physiological trait Describes important physiological characters of wheat. CO_321:0000140
canopy temperature depression The difference between air and canopy temperature which is used as a screening tool for wheat yield and stress tolerance in large breeding populations. CO_321:0000006
chlorophyll content Measures the chlorophyll content in a green tissue. Includes both chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b. Chlorophyll is the green pigment found in plants. CO_321:0000028
flag leaf area Measured directly, or estimated as length and breadth of flag leaf usually of mother shoot and multiply by 0.7 in square centimeter. CO_321:0000141
leaf conductance Rate of passage of either water vapor or carbon dioxide through the stomata. CO_321:0000018
leaf tip necrosis A physiological phenomenon caused by hot, dry and windy weather. The whole tip of the flag leaf tends to be necrotic and will often fold over. Leaf tip necrosis progresses from the margins of the flag leaf tip and lower leaves as well show some signs of it. Leaf tip necrosis is observed to some extent in all wheat varieties containing the leaf rust gene resistance gene Lr34. CO_321:0000175
stomatal frequency Number of stomata counted per unit area on the leaf surface. CO_321:0000143
stomatal resistance Resistance to diffusion of water vapor through a plants stomata. CO_321:0000063
stomatal size Measurement of stomata size in micrometers. CO_321:0000142
     
Cytology related trait Describes cytological characters of wheat. CO_321:0000162
chromosome number Total number of chromosome observed under microscope. CO_321:0000163
     
Stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic or/and biotic stresses. CO_321:0000004
Abiotic stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to abiotic stress. CO_321:0000076
acidic soil tolerance Assessed for sensitivity to acid soil. CO_321:0000078
aluminum tolerance Assessed for sensitivity to aluminium. CO_321:0000079
cold tolerance Observation of growth at temperatures lower than the optimum temperature. CO_321:0000080
drought tolerance Becoming tolerant to drought like conditions of minimal or no water content in the growth environment. CO_321:0000131
frost damage Assessed in percentage for the plant damage caused by frost. CO_321:0000127
hail damage Assessed in percentage for the plant damage caused by hail. CO_321:0000126
salinity tolerance Tolerance to the high salt content in the growth medium. CO_321:0000132
sprouting tolerance Assessed for the grain embryo dormancy. CO_321:0000081
waterlogging damage Assessed in percentage for the plant damage caused by waterlogging. CO_321:0000128
winter response Assessed in percentage for response to winter if winter kill or winter survival. CO_321:0000164
     
     
Biotic stress trait Response by the plant in terms of resistivity or sensitivity to biotic stress. CO_321:0000077
animal damage Scored for the plant damages caused by various animals. CO_321:0000083
bird damage Scored for the plant damage caused by birds. CO_321:0000087
rodent damage Scored for the plant damage caused by rodent. CO_321:0000090
     
insect damage Scored for the plant damage caused by any insects. CO_321:0000089
ant damage Scored for the plant damage caused by ants. CO_321:0000084
aphid damage Scored for the damage caused by various species of aphids. CO_321:0000085
armyworm damage Scored for the plant damage caused by armyworm. CO_321:0000086
hessian fly damage Scored for the plant damage caused by hessian fly, Maytiola destructor. CO_321:0000088
russian wheat aphid damage Scored for the plant damage caused by russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxis. CO_321:0000091
sawfly damage Scored for the plant damage caused by sawfly, Cephus cinctus. CO_321:0000092
snail damage Scored for the plant damage caused by snails. CO_321:0000093
suni pest damage Scored for the plant damage caused by suni pest. CO_321:0000094
     
nematode damage Scored for the plant damage caused by nematodes. CO_321:0000109
cyst nematode damage Scored for the wheat cyst nematode damage caused by cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae. CO_321:0000111
pratylenchus neglectus root-lesion nematode damage Scored for the plant damage caused by root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus neglectus. CO_321:0000112
pratylenchus thornei root-lesion nematode damage Scored for the plant damage caused by root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei. CO_321:0000113
root-lesion nematode damage Scored for the plant damage caused by root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus spp. CO_321:0000161
seed-gall nematode damage Scored for the wheat seed-gall nematode damage caused by Anguina tritici. CO_321:0000110
     
bacterial disease Scored for the plan response to the diseases caused by various bacteria. CO_321:0000137
bacterial leaf blight Scored for the plant response to the agent Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causing wheat bacterial leaf blight disease. Symptoms: Small (less than 0.04 inches) water-soaked lesions expand and eventually coalesce. Initial lesions become necrotic and turn from gray-green to tan-white. Entire leaves may become necrotic, but heads and glumes are typically symptomless. CO_321:0000138
bacterial leaf streak Scored for the plant response to the agent Xanthomonas translucens causing bacterial leaf streak disease. CO_321:0000120
     
viral disease Scored for the plant response to the diseases caused by various virus. CO_321:0000139
stripe mosaic Scored for the response to the barley stripe mosaic disease caused by barley stripe mosaic virus. CO_321:0000095
soil borne mosaic Scored for the plant response to the agent Soilborne Wheat Mosaic Virus (SBWMV) which is vectored by plasmodiophorid Polymyxa graminis causing soil borne mosaic. CO_321:0000173
yellow dwarf Scored for the plant response to the agent wheat yellow dwarf virus causing wheat yellow dwarf disease. CO_321:0000096
     
fungal disease Scored for the plant response to the diseases caused by various fungi. CO_321:0000122
alternaria leaf blight Scored for the plant response to the agent Alternaria triticina causing alternaria leaf blight. CO_321:0000082
black point Scored for the plant response to the agents Alternaria, Helminthosporium and Fusarium spp. causing black point disease. CO_321:0000097
blotch Scored for the plant response to several fungi causing leaf blotch disease. Symptoms: The lesions appear as tan to brown flecks, which expand into large, irregular, oval- or lens-shaped tan blotches with a yellow or chlorotic margin. CO_321:0000134
common bunt Scored for the plant response to the agent Tilletia species causing bunt disease. CO_321:0000098
dwarf bunt Scored for the plant response to the agent Tilletia controversa causing dwarf bunt disease. CO_321:0000101
eyespot Scored for the plant response to the necrotrophic fungus Tapesia yallundae (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoide W-type) and Tapesia acuformis (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides R-type) causing eye spot disease. Symptoms: The eye shape elliptical lesions forms on lower base of stem and lower leaf sheath. The eyespots are straw yellow in color from the middle and are surrounded by the greenish brown to dark brown rings. CO_321:0000102
flag smut Scored for the plant response to the agent Urocystis agropyri causing flag smut disease. CO_321:0000103
fusarium leaf blotch Scored for the plant response to the agent Calonectria nivalis (Fusarium nivale) causing fusarium leaf blotch disease. CO_321:0000125
fusarium scab spike Scored for the plant response to the agent Calonectria nivalis (Fusarium nivale) causing scab disease in spike. CO_321:0000105
fusarium wilt Scored for the plant response to the agent Fusarium oxysporum causing fusarium wilt disease. CO_321:0000168
karnal bunt Scored for the plant response to the agent Tilletia indica (syn. Neovossia indica) causing karnal bunt disease. CO_321:0000106
leaf rust Scored for the plant response to the agent Puccinia recondita causing leaf rust disease. CO_321 0000107
loose smut Scored for the plant response to the agent Ustilago tritici causing loose smut disease. CO_321:0000108
net blotch Scored for the plant response to the agent Pyrenophora teres causing net blotch. CO_321:0000170
powdery mildew Scored for the plant response to the agent Blumeria graminis (Erysiphe graminis) f. sp. tritici wheat powdery mildew disease. CO_321:0000114
pyrenophora yellow leaf blotch Scored for the plant response to the agent Pyrenophora trichostoma (Helminthhosporium tritici-repentis) causing pyrenophora yellow leaf blotch disease. Symptoms: The lesions appear as tan to brown flecks, which expand into large, irregular, oval- or lens-shaped tan blotches with a yellow or chlorotic margin. CO_321:0000135
rust Scored for the plant response to the agent Puccinia spp. causing rust disease. CO_321:0000133
scab (head blight) Scored for the plant response to the agent Fusarium spp. causing wheat scab disease. Symptoms: Infected florets become slightly darkened and oily in appearance. CO_321:0000104
septoria blotch Scored for the plant response to the agent Septoria species causing septoria blotch. CO_321:0000172
septoria tritici blotch Scored for the plant response to the agent Mycosphaerella graminicola (Septoria tritici)septoria tritici causing blotch disease. Symptoms: The lesions are linear and restricted laterally. CO_321:0000117
smut Scored for the plant response to the agent Ustilago spp. causing wheat smut disease. CO_321:0000136
southern blight Scored for the plant response to the agent Corticum rolfsii (Sclerotium rolfsii) causing wheat southern blight. CO_321:0000115
spot blotch Scored for the plant response to the agent Cochliobolus sativus (Helminthosporium sativum) wheat spot blotch. CO_321:0000116
stagonospora glume blotch Scored for the plant response to the agent Leptosphaeria nodorum (Stagonospora nodorum, Septoria nodorum) causing stagonospora glume blotch. Symptoms: The lesions are lighter brown and often lens-shaped with a darker brown center. CO_321:0000130
stem rust Scored for the plant response to the agent Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici causing stem rust disease. CO_321 0000118
stripe rust Scored for the plant response to the agent Puccinia striiformis f.sp. tritici causing stripe rust disease. CO_321:0000129
take-all Scored for the plant response to the agent Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt)causing wheat take-all disease. CO_321:0000119
tilletia laevis common bunt Scored for the plant response to the agent Tilletia laevis causing common bunt disease. CO_321:0000099
tilletia tritici common bunt Scored for the plant response to the agent Tilletia tritici causing common bunt disease. CO_321:0000100
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